19th-Century French Painting and Philosophy - The Objective Standard
david-recamier

1. David, Madame Recamier, 1800

In 1800, the French were enchanted to make the acquaintance of the elegantly reclining, fashionably attired Madame Recamier, 1800 (fig. 1), as portrayed by Jacques-Louis David. A century later, in 1904, they were accosted by the splotchy, psychedelic figures in Matisse’s Luxe, calme, et volupté (Luxury, calm, and pleasure) (fig. 2). Such a radical change in style is startling, particularly given the glacial pace of artistic development over previous centuries. The Renaissance lasted about 200 years, the Baroque about a century. But in 19th-century France, style succeeded style within decades. Neoclassicism, introduced to France by David, was dominant for only forty years or so. Romanticism ruled for about twenty-five, Naturalism for about twenty. Impressionism (as an organized movement) and Pointillism survived barely a decade each.

2. Matisse, Luxe, calme et volupte, 1904; © 2006 Succession H. Matisse, Paris / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

2. Matisse, Luxe, calme et volupte, 1904

What caused this rapid succession of styles in the 19th century, and what caused the styles to veer in the direction they did? Artistic trends are not the result of some ineffable, collective esthetic consciousness working its will; they are simply the styles that the majority of artists choose to embrace. Ultimately, the choices of individual artists shape a period’s styles. Most artists (like most butchers, bakers, and economics professors) accept without question the ideas popular among their contemporaries. We must seek the explanation for 19th-century changes in art in the cultural and philosophical context of that period.

Let us take a moment, then, to survey the 19th century, a period of astounding advances in human knowledge and enjoyment. To a thorough understanding of gross anatomy and physiology gleaned during the Enlightenment, scientists such as Virchow, Bell, Pasteur, and Lister added knowledge of cellular structure and activity, the brain and nervous system, the disease-causing role of bacteria, and the anesthetic effects of chloroform and ether. As a result of these and other advances in medicine and public health, the average life expectancy soared from about 30 years in 1800 to about 50 in 1900.

Not only were people healthier and longer-lived, they had more leisure time and more means to enjoy life. People of middle-class means and average education avidly read Hugo, Dumas, Dostoevsky, Dickens, and other novelists; they were thrilled by the operas of Verdi and Wagner; they listened spellbound to music by Beethoven, Chopin, and Tchaikovsky; they gazed at Old Masters in newly established art museums; they sauntered through grandly landscaped parks, and journeyed in comfort by rail or steamship.

New knowledge, new ideas, and new works of art circulated much more rapidly due to the explosion of communication and transportation technology during the Industrial Revolution. In 1800, news traveled only as fast as the sailboat or horse that relayed it, routinely taking weeks to cross an ocean or a continent. Books were set in type by hand and printed one laborious page at a time on handmade paper. By 1900, information could be transmitted almost instantaneously by telegraph or telephone, and inexpensive books and periodicals were printed from huge rolls of machine-made paper on electric-powered rotary presses with machine-cast type.

This increase in the speed at which information could be transmitted or reproduced was certainly a factor in the rapid changes in art: Reproductions and reviews of new artworks could travel more rapidly than ever before; thus, new styles could be more readily embraced or rejected. But this does not explain what caused artists to move from producing and appreciating the likes of the Madame Recamier to producing and appreciating the likes of the Luxe, calme, et volupté. The explanation for that lies not in the realm of technology, but in the realm of ideas. . . .

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Endnotes

1 Reflections on the Imitation of Greek Works, translated by Elfriede Heyer and Roger C. Norton (La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1987), p. 33.

2 Denis Diderot, Essai sur la peinture, 1765, chapter V; quoted in Robert Rosenblum, Transformations in Late Eighteenth Century Art (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967), pp. 51–2 and n. 6.

3 Quoted in Artists on Art from the XIV to the XX Century, edited by Robert Goldwater and Marco Treves (New York: Pantheon Books, 1945), p. 205.

4 19th-Century Theories of Art, edited by Joshua C. Taylor (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987), p. 44 (1793). The original French appears in J. L. David, Le Peintre Louis David, 1748–1825 (Paris, 1880), p. 149.

5 Quoted in Artists on Art, p. 206.

6 Quoted in Artists on Art, p. 207 (1799).

7 Quoted in Artists on Art, pp. 205–6 (1793).

8 Quoted in Artists on Art, p. 216 (1813).

9 Ingres, Ecrits sur l’art, edited by Raymond Cogniat (La Jeune Parque, 1947), p. 20 (undated; author’s translation).

10 Quoted in Artists on Art, p. 215 (undated).

11 Quoted in Artists on Art, p. 218 (undated).

12 Quoted in Artists on Art, p. 216 (undated).

13 Quoted in Vincent Pomarede and Gerard de Wallens, Corot: Extraordinary Landscapes, translated by Lisa Davidson (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Discoveries, 1996), p. 138.

14 Quoted in Pomarede, p. 142, without citation. Christopher Reed, “Wrong!”, Harvard Magazine, September-October 2004, citing a Newsweek article of 1940, gives the quote as “Of the 2,500 paintings Corot did in his lifetime, 7,800 are to be found in America.”

15 Quoted in Artists on Art, p. 240.

16 Quoted in Artists on Art, p. 241 (ca. 1850).

17 Quoted in Artists on Art, p. 241 (ca. 1850).

18 Conversation with Alfred Robaut, 1874, recorded in Corot raconté par lui-meme et par ses amis (Vesenaz-Geneve: Pierre Cailler, 1946), p. 88 (author’s translation).

19 The historical development of the idea of “romanticism,” and later scholarly debate on it, is discussed in detail, with bibliography, in Franklin L. Baumer, “Romanticism (ca. 1780–ca. 1830),” Dictionary of the History of Ideas, http://etext.virginia.edu/cgi-local/DHI/dhi.cgi?id=dv4-26.

20 Schopenhauer, The World as Will and Idea, quoted in W. T. Jones, Kant and the 19th Century, History of Western Philosophy (San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975), vol. 4, p. 148. For a thorough discussion with bibliography, see James Gutmann, “Romanticism in Post-Kantian Philosophy,” Dictionary of the History of Ideas, http://etext.virginia.edu (click on “By Subject,” then “Religion and Philosophy,” then scroll down to “Romanticism in Post-Kantian Philosophy”).

21 For details on the historical development see Rene Wellek, “Romanticism in Literature,” Dictionary of the History of Ideas, http://etext.virginia.edu (click on “By Subject,” then “Art,” then scroll down to “Romanticism in Literature”).

22 Ayn Rand, “The Objectivist Ethics,” The Virtue of Selfishness (New York: New American Library, 1964), p. 27; see also the references under “Emotions,” The Ayn Rand Lexicon, edited by Harry Binswanger (New York: New American Library, 1986), pp. 141–44.

23 Ayn Rand, “What Is Romanticism?,” Romantic Manifesto (New York: New American Library, 1971), pp. 99–122. On Ayn Rand’s view of Naturalism, see the section on Naturalist artists, below.

24 On the wreck of the Medusa, see http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/ships/html/sh_060400_medusa.htm

25 Quoted in Artists on Art, pp. 225–26.

26 Quoted in Neoclassicism and Romanticism 1750–1850, edited by L. Eitner. Sources and Documents in the History of Art, edited by H. W. Janson (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1970), vol. 2, p. 98.

27 Quoted in Neoclassicism and Romanticism vol. 2, p. 100 (1822–1824).

28 Quoted in Artists on Art, p. 224 (1821).

29 Quoted in Neoclassicism and Romanticism vol. 2, p. 101 (1822–1824).

30 Portrait of Madame Henri Francois Riesener, 1835, Metropolitan Museum of Art.

31 Quoted in Artists on Art, p. 233.

32 Quoted in Neoclassicism and Romanticism vol. 2, p. 121 (1860).

33 Quoted in 19th-Century Theories of Art, p. 238 (1824).

34 Quoted in 19th-Century Theories of Art, p. 232 (undated, ca. 1824–1847).

35 Quoted in 19th-Century Theories of Art, p. 234 (undated, ca. 1824–1847).

36 Quoted in Neoclassicism and Romanticism vol. 2, p. 127 (1863).

37 Quoted in 19th-Century Theories of Art, p. 122.

38 On the development of this idea, see Iredell Jenkins, “Art for Art’s Sake,” Dictionary of the History of Ideas, online at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/cgi-local/DHI/dhi.cgi?id=dv1-18. The conception of “art for art’s sake” first appeared in 1804, in a work by Benjamin Constant commenting on Kant’s and Schelling’s esthetic doctrines. On the effects of the theory, see Irving Singer, “The Aesthetics of 'Art for Art’s Sake,’” Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, vol. 12, no. 3, 1954, pp. 343–59.

39 “What Is Romanticism?” Romantic Manifesto, p. 126.

40 Ayn Rand, “The Goal of My Writing,” Romantic Manifesto, p. 164.

41 Quoted in Artists on Art, p. 292 (1860?).

42 Quoted in 19th-Century Theories of Art, pp. 340–41.

43 Quoted in 19th-Century Theories of Art, p. 342 (1863).

44 Quoted in 19th-Century Theories of Art, p. 345.

45 Letters of Gustave Courbet, edited and translated by Petra ten-Doesschate Chu (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1992), p. 93 (1850).

46 Letters of Courbet, p. 93.

47 Letters of Courbet, p. 131.

48 Quoted in Artists on Art, pp. 295–96.

49 Quoted in From David to Ingres, Early French 19th-century Artists, edited by Jane Turner (New York: Grove Art, 2000), p. 81 (1861).

50 Quoted in From David to Ingres, p. 80 (1849).

51 Letters of Courbet, p. 115.

52 Quoted in 19th-Century Theories of Art, p. 347 (1861).

53 Quoted in 19th-Century Theories of Art, p. 348 (1861).

54 Quoted in 19th-Century Theories of Art, pp. 295–96.

55 From Modern Painters, 1843; quoted in Neoclassicism and Romanticism, vol. 2, p. 71.

56 A Joy For Ever: The Political Economy of Art, excerpted in The Lamp of Beauty, edited by Joan Evans (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1959), pp. 293–94, 296. According to Evans, this was “the substance of two lectures given in connection with the Art Treasures Exhibition at Manchester”—so presumably to a general audience.

57 Quoted in 19th-Century Theories of Art, p. 296.

58 Quoted in 19th-Century Theories of Art, p. 294.

59 Quoted in 19th-Century Theories of Art, p. 290.

60 “Education in the Arts,” letter to T. D. Acland for his book Some Account of the Origin and Objects of the New Oxford Examinations for the Title of Associate in Arts and Certificates for the Year 1858; reprinted in The Lamp of Beauty, p. 319.

61 Antonin Proust, quoted in Michael Fried, Manet’s Modernism, or, The Face of Painting in the 1860s (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 1996), p. 432. For a selection of contemporary comments on Olympia, see George Heard Hamilton, Manet and His Critics (New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 1986), pp. 69–78.

62 See the sketch for Olympia reproduced in Francoise Cachin, Manet: The Influence of the Modern, translated by Rachel Kaplan (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1994), pp. 58–59.

63 Quoted in Cachin, p. 59.

64 Quoted in Cachin, p. 109.

65 Quoted in Artists on Art, p. 306.

66 Quoted in Cachin, p. 12.

67 “A New Style in Painting: M. Edouard Manet,” quoted extensively in 19th-Century Theories of Art, pp. 417–26.

68 “Art at the Moment,” 1866, quoted in 19th-Century Theories of Art, p. 427.

69 Quoted in Cachin, p. 146 (1867).

70 Lilla Cabot Perry, “Reminiscences of Claude Monet from 1889 to 1909”; quoted in H. W. Janson, History of Art, 5th ed. p. 908, selection #92.

71 Quoted in Sylvie Patin, Monet: The Ultimate Impressionist, translated by Anthony Roberts (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1993), pp. 141–42.

72 “Shop-Talk of Edgar Degas,” quoted in From the Classicists to the Impressionists: Art and Architecture in the 19th Century, edited by Elizabeth Gilmore Holt. A Documentary History of Art (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986), vol. 3, p. 401.

73 Quoted in Artists on Art, p. 308 (undated).

74 Quoted in Artists on Art, p. 308 (undated).

75 Quoted in Artists on Art, p. 322.

76 Quoted in Artists on Art, p. 364 (1904).

77 Quoted in Michel Hoog, Cézanne: Father of 20th-Century Art, translated by Rosemary Stonehewer (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1994), p. 145 (1906).

78 Quoted in Hoog, p. 131 (undated).

79 Quoted in Hoog, p. 140; the ellipses are in Hoog.

80 Quoted in Hoog, p. 144.

81 Quoted in Hoog, p. 156.

82 Quoted in Hoog, p. 157.

83 Quoted in Hoog, p. 158 (1943).

84 See Van Gogh, A Self-Portrait. Letters Revealing His Life as a Painter, selected by W. H. Auden (Greenwich, CT: New York Graphic Society, 1961), especially the letters from 1888–1890.

85 Quoted in Artists on Art, pp. 382–83.

86 Quoted in Artists on Art, pp. 373–74.

87 Quoted in Artists on Art, pp. 369–70.

88 Gustave Kahn, quoted in 19th-Century Theories of Art, p. 546 (1891).

89 Quoted in 19th-Century Theories of Art, p. 541 (1890).

90 Quoted in Genevieve Lacambre, Gustave Moreau: Magic and Symbols, translated by Benjamin Lifson (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1997), pp. 98–99.

91 Quoted in Lacambre, p. 117 (undated).

92 Quoted in Lacambre, p. 98 (1897).

93 Quoted in Artists on Art, p. 288.

94 Quoted in Artists on Art, p. 288.

95 Quoted in Artists on Art, p. 365 (1904).

96 For more on the nature of and need for proper definitions, see Ayn Rand, Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology, 2nd ed., edited by Harry Binswanger and Leonard Peikoff (New York: Meridian, 1990), pp. 40–54.

97 “Art and Cognition,” Romantic Manifesto, p. 45.

98 For more on the definition and purpose of art, see the discussion of the Cid in “Getting More Enjoyment from Art You Love,” The Objective Standard, vol. 1, no. 2, Summer 2006, pp. 118–20.

99 “Art and Cognition,” Romantic Manifesto, p. 45. See also “The Psycho-Epistemology of Art, Romantic Manifesto, pp. 15–24.

100 For further discussion of the function of art, see D. Durante, “Getting More Enjoyment from Art You Love,” pp. 118–23.

101 Quoted in Artists on Art, p. 421 (1935).

102 See D. Durante, “Getting More Enjoyment from Art You Love,” pp. 105–26; also “How to Read a Sculpture” in Outdoor Monuments of Manhattan: A Historical Guide, forthcoming from New York University Press in February 2007.

Picture Credits

1. David, Jacques Louis (1748–1825)
Madame Recamier. 1800. Oil on canvas, 174 x 244 cm.
Louvre, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

2. Matisse, Henri (1869–1954)
Luxe, calme et volupte. 1904. Oil on canvas, 98 x 118 cm.
Musee d’Orsay, Paris, France
© 2006 Succession H. Matisse, Paris / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York
Photo Credit: Scala / Art Resource, NY

3. Boucher, Francois (1703–70)
Music Lesson. 1749. Oil on canvas, 65 x 57.9 cm. Photo: Bulloz.
Musee Cognacq-Jay, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Réunion des Musées Nationaux / Art Resource, NY

4. David, Jacques Louis (1748–1825)
Sappho and Phaon. 1770s. Oil on canvas, 221.9 x 261 cm.
Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia
Photo Credit: Scala / Art Resource, NY

5. David, Jacques Louis (1748–1825)
The Oath of the Horatii. 1784. Oil on canvas, 330 x 425 cm.
Louvre, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

6. David, Jacques Louis (1748–1825)
Death of Marat. 1793. Oil on canvas, 165 x 128 cm.
Louvre, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

7. Raphael (1483–1520)
Madonna di Foligno. ca. 1512. Oil on canvas, 301 x 198 cm.
Pinacoteca, Vatican Museums, Vatican State
Photo Credit: Scala / Art Resource, NY

8. Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique (1780–1867)
Grande Odalisque. 1814. Oil on canvas, 91 x 182 cm.
Louvre, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

9. Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique (1780–1867)
Vow of Louis XIII. 1824. Oil on canvas, 421 x 262 cm.
Notre-Dame, Montauban, France
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

10. Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique (1780–1867)
Madame Philibert Rivière. 1805. Oil on canvas, 116 x 90 cm.
Louvre, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

11. Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique (1780–1867)
Monsieur Louis Francois Bertin. 1832. Oil on canvas, 116 x 95 cm.
Louvre, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

12. Corot, Jean-Baptiste Camille (1796–1875)
Bridge at Narni. 1826. Oil on paper on canvas, 34 x 48 cm. Photo: H. Lewandowski.
Louvre, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Réunion des Musées Nationaux / Art Resource, NY

13. Corot, Jean-Baptiste Camille (1796–1875)
Diana Bathing. 1855. Oil on canvas, 168 x 257 cm.
Musee des Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux, France
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

14. Corot, Jean-Baptiste Camille (1796–1875)
Memory (Souvenir) of Mortefontaine. 1864. Oil on canvas, 65 x 89 cm
.Louvre, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Scala / Art Resource, NY

15. Gros, Antoine Jean (1771–1835)
Napoleon in the Pesthouse at Jaffa. 1804. Oil on canvas, 523 x 715 cm.
Louvre, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

16. Géricault, Théodore (1791–1824)
An Officer of the Imperial Horse Guards. 1814. Oil on canvas, 349 x 266 cm.
Louvre, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

17. Géricault, Théodore (1791–1824)
Raft of the Medusa. 1819. Oil on canvas, 491 x 716 cm. Photo: Arnaudet.
Louvre, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Réunion des Musées Nationaux / Art Resource, NY

18. Delacroix, Eugene (1798–1863)
Death of Sardanapalus. 1827. Oil on canvas, 392 x 496 cm.
Louvre, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

19. Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique (1780–1867)
Apotheosis of Homer. 1827. Oil on canvas, 386 x 512 cm.
Louvre, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

20. Delacroix, Eugene (1798–1863)
Liberty Leading the People. 1830. Oil on canvas, 260 x 325 cm.
Louvre, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

21. David, Jacques Louis (1748–1825)
Napoleon at St. Bernard. 1801. Oil on canvas, 260 x 221 cm.
Chateaux de Malmaison et Bois-Preau, Rueil-Malmaison, France
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

22. Delacroix, Eugene (1798–1863)
Medea Kills Her Children. 1838. Oil on canvas, 260 x 165 cm.
Musee des Beaux-Arts, Lille, France
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

23. Constable, John (1776–1837)
Hay Wain. 1821. Oil on canvas, 128.5 x 182 cm.
National Gallery, London, Great Britain
Photo Credit: Art Resource, NY

24. Millet, Jean Francois (1814–75)
The Gleaners. 1857. Oil on canvas, 83.7 x 111 cm.
Musee d’Orsay, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

25. Courbet, Gustave (1819–77)
Burial at Ornans. 1849–50. Oil on canvas, 311.5 x 668 cm. Photo: Hervé Lewandowski.
Musee d’Orsay, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Réunion des Musées Nationaux / Art Resource, NY

26. Courbet, Gustave (1819–77)
The Artist in His Studio. 1854–55. Oil on canvas, 361 x 598 cm.
Musee d’Orsay, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

27. Cabanel, Alexandre (1824–89)
Birth of Venus. 1863. Oil on canvas, 130 x 225 cm.
Musee d’Orsay, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

28. Manet, Edouard (1832–83)
Olympia. 1863. Oil on canvas, 130.5 x 190 cm. Photo: Hervé Lewandowski.
Musee d’Orsay, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Réunion des Musées Nationaux / Art Resource, NY

29. Titian (Tiziano Vecellio) (ca. 1488–1576)
Venus of Urbino. 1538. Oil on canvas, 119 x 165 cm.
Uffizi, Florence, Italy
Photo Credit: Alinari / Art Resource, NY

30. Manet, Edouard (1832–83)
Portrait of Georges Clemenceau. 1879–80. Oil on canvas, 94.5 x 74 cm.
Musee d’Orsay, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

31. Manet, Edouard (1832–83)
Bar at the Folies-Bergère. 1882. Oil on canvas, 96 x 130 cm.
Courtauld Institute Galleries, London, Great Britain
Photo Credit: © Samuel Courtauld Trust, Courtauld Institute of Art Gallery/ The Bridgeman Art Library

32. Monet, Claude (1840–1926)
Impression: Sunrise. 1873. Oil on canvas, 48 x 63 cm.
Musee Marmottan-Claude Monet, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

33. Monet, Claude (1840–1926)
Madame Louis Joachim Gaudibert. 1868. Oil on canvas, 217 x 138.5 cm.
Musee d’Orsay, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

34. Monet, Claude (1840–1926)
Poplars on the Epte. 1891. Oil on canvas, 100.3 x 65.2 cm. Bequest of Anne Thomson in memory of her father, Frank Thomson, and her mother, Mary Elizabeth Clarke Thomson, 1954.
Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
Photo Credit: The Philadelphia Museum of Art / Art Resource, NY

35. Monet, Claude (1840–1926)
La Grenouillere. 1869. Oil on canvas, 73 x 92 cm.
National Gallery, London, Great Britain
Photo Credit: Art Resource, NY

36. Monet, Claude (1840–1926)
Poplars on the Epte. 1891. Oil on canvas, 92.4 x 73.7 cm.
Tate Gallery, London, Great Britain
Photo Credit: Tate Gallery, London / Art Resource, NY

37. Kandinsky, Wassily (1866–1944)
Composition, VII. 1913. Oil on canvas, 200 x 300 cm.
Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, Russia
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

38. Degas, Edgar (1834–1917)
Hélène Rouart in her Father’s Study. 1886. Oil on canvas, 161 x 120 cm.
National Gallery, London, Great Britain
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

39. Degas, Edgar (1834–1917)
Four Ballerinas Resting Between Scenes. Late 1890s. Pastel on paper, 65 x 65 cm.
Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow, Russia
Photo Credit: Scala / Art Resource, NY

40. Renoir, Auguste (1841–1919)
Jeanne Samary. 1877. Oil on canvas, 56 x 46 cm.
Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow, Russia
Photo Credit: Scala / Art Resource, NY

41. Renoir, Auguste (1841–1919)
Dance at the Moulin de la Galette. 1876. Oil on canvas, 131 x 175 cm.
Musee d’Orsay, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

42. Cézanne, Paul (1839–1906)
Poet’s Dream. ca. 1858–60. Oil on canvas, 82 x 66 cm. Photo: Arnaudet.
Musee Granet, Aix-en-Provence, France
Photo Credit: Réunion des Musées Nationaux / Art Resource, NY

43. Cézanne, Paul (1839–1906)
Bridge at Maincy. 1879. Oil on canvas, 58.5 x 72.5 cm.
Musee d’Orsay, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

44. Cézanne, Paul (1839–1906)
Still Life with Fruit Basket. 1888–90. Oil on canvas, 65 x 81 cm.
Musee d’Orsay, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

45. Cézanne, Paul (1839–1906)
Madame Cézanne. 1888–90. Oil on canvas, 89 x 70 cm.
Museu de Arte, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

46. Cézanne, Paul (1839–1906)
Mount Sainte-Victoire. ca. 1905. Oil on canvas, 60 x 72 cm.
Kunstmuseum, Basel, Switzerland
Photo Credit: Giraudon / Art Resource, NY

47. Cézanne, Paul (1839–1906)
Mount Sainte-Victoire, above the Tholonet Road. 1880s. Oil on canvas, 81 x 100 cm.
Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia
Photo Credit: Scala / Art Resource, NY

48. Picasso, Pablo (1881–1973) © ARS, NY
Les Demoiselles d’Avignon. 1907. Oil on canvas, 243.9 × 233.7 cm. Acquired through the Lille P. Bliss Bequest. (333.1939).
The Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York, U.S.A.
Photo Credit: © The Museum of Modern Art/Licensed by SCALA / Art Resource, NY

49. Gogh, Vincent van (1853–90)
Church at Auvers-sur-Oise. 1890. Oil on canvas, 94 x 74.5 cm.
Musee d’Orsay, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

50. Gogh, Vincent van (1853–90)
Woman of Arles. 1888. Oil on canvas, 92.5 x 73.5 cm.
Musee d?Orsay, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

51. Gauguin, Paul (1848–1903)
Nave nave nahana (Delicious Day). 1896. Oil on canvas, 95 x 130 cm.
Musee des Beaux-Arts, Lyon, France
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

52. Gauguin, Paul (1848–1903)
Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?1897–98. Oil on canvas, 139.1 x 374.6 cm.
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.
Photo Credit: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston / Bridgeman Art Library

53. Seurat, Georges (1859–91)
Bathers at Asniéres. 1883–84. Oil on canvas, 201 x 301 cm.
National Gallery, London, Great Britain
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

54. Ingres, Jean Auguste Dominique (1780–1867)
Oedipus and the Sphinx. 1808. Oil on canvas, 189 x 144 cm.
Louvre, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

55. Moreau, Gustave (1826–98)
Oedipus and the Sphinx. 1864. Oil on canvas, 206.4 x 104.8 cm. Bequest of William H. Herriman, 1920 (21.134.1).
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York, U.S.A.
Photo Credit: © 1997 The Metropolitan Museum of Art

56. Moreau, Gustave (1826–98)
Jupiter and Semele. 1890–95. Oil on canvas, 213 x 118 cm. Photo: R.G. Ojeda.
Musee Gustave Moreau, Paris, France
Photo Credit: Réunion des Musées Nationaux / Art Resource, NY

57. Gerome, Jean Leon (1824–1904)
Aftermath of the Ball. 1857. Oil on canvas, 50 x 72 cm. Photo: Gérard Blot.
Musée Condé, Chantilly, France
Photo Credit: Réunion des Musées Nationaux / Art Resource, NY

58. Bouguereau, William-Adolphe (1825–1905)
Flora and Zephyr. 1875. Oil on canvas, 184 cm in diameter.
Musee des Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux, France
Photo Credit: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

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